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Secrets of the paleo diet

Discovery reveals plant-based menu of prehistoric man


Original Article:

popular- archaeology.com

780,000 year old remains of edible fruits and seeds discovered in the northern Jordan Valley. Credit: Yaakov Langsam


THE HEBREW UNIVERSITY OF JERUSALEM—A tiny grape pip (scale 1mm), left on the ground some 780,000 years ago, is one of more than 9,000 remains of edible plants discovered in an old Stone Age site in Israel on the shoreline of Lake Hula in the northern Jordan valley, dating back to the Acheulian culture from 1.75-0.25 million years ago. The floral collection provides rich testimony of the plant-based diet of our prehistoric ancestors.

While around the world remains of Paleolithic plants are scarce, this unique macro-botanical assemblage has allowed researchers from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem and Bar Ilan University to study the vegetal diet of humans from early-mid-Pleistocene, which is central to understanding the evolution, adaptation and exploitation of the environment by hominins.
The findings were recovered during archeological excavations at the waterlogged site of Gesher Benot Ya’aqov, where the earliest evidence of human-controlled fire in western Asia was discovered in recent years.
Prof. Naama Goren-Inbar of the Institute of Archeology at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, who conducted the excavations with colleagues, have long studied findings of hominid occupations in the Levantine Corridor, through which several hominin waves dispersed out of Africa.
In a research paper that will be published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) on December 5, titled “The plant component of an Acheulian diet: a case study from Gesher Benot Ya’aqov, Israel”, Prof. Goren-Inbar reveals the discovery of the ancient macrobotanical remains, which for the first time indicate to the rich variety of plant assortments and subsistence opportunities that were available to the early humans on the transition from an African-based to a Eurasian diet.
“In recent years we were met with a golden opportunity to reveal numerous remains of fruits, nuts and seeds from trees, shrubs and the lake, alongside the remains of animals and man-made stone tools in one locality,” Prof. Goren-Inbar said.
Of the remains found on site, Prof. Goren-Inbar and Dr. Yoel Melamed of the Faculty of Life Sciences at Bar Ilan University have identified 55 species of edible plants, including seeds, fruits, nuts, leaves, stems, roots and tubers.

The findings, many of them minor in size, have been preserved for hundreds of thousands of years thanks to the damp conditions in the vicinity of the site, said Dr. Melamed. The basalts under and in the site were dated by Ar/Ar and the dates were further confirmed by results of paleomagnetic analyses.
“This region is known for the wealth of plants, but what surprised us were the sources of plant food coming from the lake. We found more than 10 species that existed here in prehistoric times but no longer today, such as two types of water nuts, from which seven were edible,” explained Dr. Melamed.

The site was submerged under the Jordan River and the Hula Lake in conditions of humidity and lack of oxygen, aided by the fast covering of layers of sediments, in which archaeologists also found stone tools and animal fossils.
Gesher Benot Ya’aqov is also the place where Prof. Goren-Inbar found the earliest evidence of the use of fire in Eurasia (LINK). “The use of fire is very important because a lot of the plants are toxic or inedible. Using fire, like roasting nuts and roots for example, allows the use of various parts of the plant and increases the diversity of the plant component of the Acheulian diet, alongside aquatic and terrestrial fauna,” said Prof. Goren-Inbar.
The use of fire and the availability of a diverse range of flora highlight the ability of prehistoric man to adjust to a new environment, to exploit the environment for his own benefit and to colonize beyond Africa.
Article Source: Hebrew University press release.


Black bees in the mizzle at Godolphin

The Bee Improvement and Bee Breeders Association (BIBBA) organised a big conference on at the Eden Project in Cornwall last weekend – Sustainable Beekeeping: A future without imports. It was all about the benefits of keeping our native/near native honey bees, i.e. UK populations of dark European honey bees, the sub-species Apis mellifera mellifera.

I didn’t go to the conference, but I did get to see some dark bees during an apiary visit to the National Trust’s Godolphin House, which had been organised as part of the conference weekend.

Bob Black, one of the Godolphin beekeepers, hosted the visit. Over forty of us gathered round in a circle and it quickly became clear that this was a rather expert audience, with some professional beekeepers amongst us. A few had travelled from as far as Ireland and the Isle of Wight – like Cornwall, remote places where distinct bee populations can thrive. I also had the pleasure of meeting a blog reader – hi Alan and Lynn!

As the famed Cornish ‘mizzle‘ came down thick and wet, we squelched round to various parts of the Godolphin estate to see the hives. A few hardy bees were flitting in and out for soggy cleansing flights; they were indeed black in colour.

Sorry for the terrible photos – was too busy listening to Bob to take many. He filled us in on some of the details of keeping the bees at Godolphin – the first dark bee colonies came around seven years ago, supplied by Cornish beekeeper James Kilty. Bob has seen his dark queens mating amongst nearby trees and believes there are now enough dark drones locally for them to be able to maintain the sub-species by mating naturally.

Bob sells around twelve dark bee nucleus hives a year and doesn’t take pre-orders as he won’t know till around May how many he has to sell. He receives around 4-5 emails a week from people wanting to buy native dark bees, some from as far away as Canada!

For varroa control they use Apiguard and trickle oxalic acid. Honey production is not huge but they make enough to sell in the Godolphin shop. Indeed, the latest BBKA Honey Survey 2017 results found the Wales and South West regions were the least productive for honey, with a wet summer causing honey crops to drop to an average 18 lbs per hive.

It may look like dusk in the photo below of one of Godolphin’s buildings but was actually around 1.30pm. Bob told us feral bee colonies nest among some of the buildings but tend to last only a couple of years before dying out.

We walked on to the main apiary site which the public can view. The Godolphin poster below says the bees are particularly special for a number of reasons:

  • They like to keep clean: they groom, nibble and clean their hive
  • They are suited to the UK environment
  • They are good-tempered
  • They have a good health record
  • They store food for rainy days

I will have the chance to see for myself if this is true this summer as I have ordered a nuc now 🙂  There may be a commercial angle to promoting the benefits of dark bees, as it gives Cornish bee breeders a unique selling point. I would prefer to have local bees as I have found the climate here is slightly different to London, warmer but wetter.

Bob posted this quote from one of the attendees on the Cornish Black Bees Facebook page:

“A great afternoon at Godolphin today, hosted by Bob Black as part of the BIBBA weekend. Beekeepers from Ireland, Essex, blogland and Redruth joined together to hear about the realities of retaining a local bee population – against all odds. I really enjoyed talking to the representatives from Ireland ‘s Native Bee Association who are battling to save what we may have already lost – a true native bee. An interesting dilemma for them – they want ban imports of bees but, beekeepers want to export their bees because others want the native black bee – and you can’t have it both ways! Thanks Bob for hosting this event, and asking WCBKA to be part of it.”

Moving from creatures of the air to creatures of the water – I met our native garden frogs for the first time this week. When we moved in during November I assumed our pond would have frogs, but we never saw any – until they came and said hello outside our door in spectacular style! Four to six little heads can now regularly be seen bobbing up and down in the water. If I can keep both my bees and my frogs happy this year I will be very happy too!

It’s alive! Scientists get closer to identifying what lives in our soil

Iowa Learning Farms has been spreading the word about soil health, and its preservation, for over a decade, and Iowa farmers have long touted the benefits of soil health for crop growth. Now, the importance of soil is gaining an even wider audience when earlier this year researchers from the University of Colorado-Boulder published findings […]

€120billion geothermal project in Europe

On 28th of January 2018 in Brussels at an EU steering committee meeting on energy technique of the future, SETPLAN, Guðni A. Jóhannesson general director of energy reported on a plan on deployment of geothermal heat for heating and electric production in Europe. Iceland is a member in SETPLAN cooperation on the grounds of EEA cooperation.

A workgroup under supervision of Guðni and other colleagues have been working on various topics e.g. technical matters, highlights and projects that need to be fulfilled under strict rules of the steering committee set in the beginning of the project. Matters that need to be covered are e.g. utilization of geothermal heat, improve the competitiveness and minimize costs regarding exclusive factors of geothermal heat production.

The SETPLAN committee approved the plan from the workgroup and to finance research and development projects within the geothermal fields with 940 billion euro. The financing comes from the partner countries, from EU funds and the industry. The first cooperation project has begun, GEOTHERMICA, and applications thereunder could lead to 60 billion euro projects. Orkustofnun (National Energy Authority) leads the project from Iceland; other partners are also RANNÍS (The Icelandic Centre for Research) which runs the application process. GEORG runs the office of the project and daily operations.

Source: https://orkustofnun.is/orkustofnun/frettir/nr/1912